The second coming of the Redeemer is shown by the third group of constellations.
The constellations include Taurus, The Coming Judge
of the Earth; Gemini, The Duel Natured King;
Cancer, His Possessions Held Secure; and Leo,
The Lion of the Tribe of Judah.
Taurus - The Invincible Ruler Come
The ninth zodiac constellation is Taurus. This is not
a common bull but an wild ox, a "Reem". He is in intense
rage, barreling down on his enemy. He is a great white wild ox which has two long forward-pointing horns. His forelegs suggest
that he is charging forward. It is a prophecy of Christ, the coming Judge,
and Ruler, and "Lord of all the earth" (Deuteronomy 33:17; John
5:26-27) - a symbol of the coming destruction of the wicked, of Christ in his judgment . He also represents resurrection (When Taurus rises, Scorpius
sets or disappears).
The constellation of Taurus, The Bull, has the same meaning in every language which is a great beast, a bull or ox, with his head lowered and his horns pointed forward. He is untamable and irresistible, charging forth--rampaging, raging, head down and so to bring destruction to all who are in his way. Taurus is only the forepart of the bull; it appears to grow right out of Aries, The Lamb. Thus the Lamb is changing into the Bull.
Even the Israelites had their idol the "Golden Calf" of the Exodus. Aaron made a golden image of a male calf in order that the people might worship the Lord under this form in Exodus 32:4. After the division of the kingdom, Jeroboam set up two golden calves in his kingdom, one at Bethel and one at Dan (1 Kings 12:28-29). Many bull figurines have been found in the Early Israelite period (about 1200-1000 B.C.). The Babylonians looked on the bull as the symbol of their greatest gods. The bull was a sacred animal in Phoenicia and Syria. Among the Semitic Canaanites the bull was the symbol of Baal.
The Taurus constellation first shows up in the month of September.
- Hebrew: Reem - Wild ox, also Shur, which is from a root which means both coming and ruling.
- Egyptian in The Denderah zodiac: Isis - who saves or delivers & Apis - the head or chief
- Chaldee: Tor
- Arabic: Tauros
- Latin: Taurus
- Al Debaran, a bright, reddish star in the bull's eye means the "Captain", "Leader" or" Governor"
- Psalm 22:28: For royal power belongs to the Lord. He rules all the nations.
- Elnath at the tip of the left horn means "The Wounded" or "The Slain".
- Palilicium (Hebrew), belonging to the judge
- Wasat (Arabic), center or foundation.
- Al Thuraiya (Arabic), the abundance.
- Vergiliae (Latin), the center (Arabic, vertex) turned on, rolled round.
- Pleiades (pronounced PLEE-uh-deez) (The Three Sisters) is a circlet of stars on the shoulder meaning "Congregation of the Judge"
- 1 Corinthians 6:1-3: "... someday we believers will judge the world? ...we will judge angels..."
- They were called the "sailing stars," for early Greek seamen would set sail only when they were visible. On a clear night a person can resolve six individual stars, and thousands of years ago it was likely that seven were visible.
- The Hyades (pronounced "HI-uh-deez")is another group of stars on the face of the Bull, which has the similar meaning of the congregated.
- The ancients knew this cluster as the "rainy stars," because their rising heralded the beginning of autumn and the onset of the rainy season.
- In Numbers 23:22, Balaam described God's power in
leading Israel: God brought them out of Egypt; for them he is as
strong as a wild ox.
- Jude 14-15 describes the Lord's coming for judgment:
"...The Lord is coming with countless thousands of his holy
ones to execute judgment on the people of the world...."
Verses using the Hebrew word "Reem":
- Deuteronomy 33:17: Joseph has the majesty of a young bull; he has the horns of a wild ox. He will gore distant nations, driving them to the ends of the earth. This is my blessing for the multitudes of Ephraim and the thousands of Manasseh.”
- Psalm 92:10: But you have made me as strong as a wild ox. You have anointed me with the finest oil.
- Job 39:9-12: Will the wild ox consent to being tamed? Will it spend the night in your stall? Can you hitch a wild ox to a plow? Will it plow a field for you? Given its strength, can you trust it? Can you leave and trust the ox to do your work? Can you rely on it to bring home your grain and deliver it to your threshing floor?
Greek Mythology: In early Greek mythology, Zeus falls in love with Europa, the daughter of the King of Tyre. But Europa was constantly guarded by her father's servants. One day Zeus changed himself into a beautiful white bull with golden horns. He then mixed with the royal herds that were grazing in a large field by the sea. Europa, who had been walking along the beach, noticed this beautiful animal and could not resist going up to it and feeding it. So friendly and gentle was this splendid bull that she climbed onto its back and grasped its golden horns. Out of his passion for Beautiful Europa, whom he won by his gentleness, he bore her on his back across the sea to Crete. When the two arrived to Crete, Zeus changed himself back into his own form. Realizing that he could not marry Europa himself, Zeus gave her in marriage to Asterius, king of Crete.
The Hyades, a V-shaped cluster of stars forming the face of Taurus, has its own mythological story. The Hyades were sisters of Hyas, a great hunter whose death they mourned. The girls were chosen by Zeus to care for his child Dionysus (god of Wine) when his mother died. Zeus placed the sisters into the sky for their service and pity for their grief, and there they continue to weep for their brother.
The Pleaides (also called "The Seven Sisters"), have been a source of wonder for thousands of years and are connected to the agricultural seasons. They have inspired poets and guided sailors, and many ancient buildings were aligned to collect light from the star cluster including the Parthenon and Mayan temples. The automaker Subaru's name is the Japanese word for the Pleiades. Pleiades means the congregation of the judge or ruler, comes to us through the Greek Septuagint as the translation of the Hebrew kimah, which means the heap or accumulation. The Syriac name for the Pleiades is Succoth, which means booths.
- Job 9:9: He made all the stars—the Bear and Orion, the Pleiades and the constellations of the southern sky.
- Job 38:31: “Can you direct the movement of the stars— binding the cluster of the Pleiades or loosening the cords of Orion?
- Amos 5:8: It is the Lord who created the stars, the Pleiades and Orion. He turns darkness into morning and day into night. He draws up water from the oceans and pours it down as rain on the land. The Lord is his name
Every thing points to the important truth, and all turns on the fact that the Lord is COMING TO RULE! This is the central truth of all prophecy. "The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." (Revelation 19:10) All hope for Creation, all hope for the world, all hope for Israel, all hope for the Church, turns on this, that "Jesus is coming again," and that when He comes His saints (like the Pleiades and Hyades) will be with Him.
The three decans are Orion, Eridanus and Auriga
I. Orion - The Great Hunter (The Coming Prince) -
Light breaking forth in the Redeemer
The first decan is Orion, a mighty man (a picture of
Jesus) with a club in his raised right hand and the skin of a slain lion
in his left hand. His left foot is crushing Lepus, his enemy (a decan
of Gemini) in the same manner Ophiuchus' foot is over Scorpio. He wears a girdle around his waist from which hangs a sword.
In the oldest illustrations of Orion, the hilt and handle of the sword
are drawn as the head and body of a lamb. From his raised foot flows a
river (of fire). Most Christian commentators identify him as Christ during
his millennial reign.
The constellation is shaped like a large rectangle with three bright 'belt' stars going through the middle. Three stars in a row make up Orion’s belt, within a rectangle of four bright stars representing his shoulders and feet. At sunset in the autumn, Orion’s belt appears to rise straight up on the horizon. Orion’s rising on the eastern horizon at sunset is a marker of autumn. However, for early risers it is visible all summer. Late in summer, at the time of the grape harvest, Orion rises at midnight. And when Orion rises at sunset in autumn, sailors knew that the time had come to bring their ships to port. Orion the hunter appropriately faces the red eye of Taurus. His two hunting dogs follow behind: The Big Dog or Canis Major, with the bright star Sirius. And the Little Dog, or Canis Minor, with the bright star Procyon.
The pharaohs, so it was believed, began their journeys in the celestial realms with a visit to Osiris and Isis in the regions of Orion and Sirius. Many peoples have located their greatest gods here. Yet consider Solomon, who said when dedicating David’s temple: "But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens--even the highest heaven--cannot contain you."
Orion was anciently spelled Oarion, from the Hebrew root, which means light. So that Orion means coming forth as light.
- Arabic: Al Giauza - The Branch, Al Mirzam, The Ruler and Al Nagjed, The Prince.
- Arabic: Al Jauzah, loosely meaning "the Middle Figure of the Heavens"
- Arabic: Al Babadur - "the Strong One"
- Hebrew: Gibbor - "the Giant" also Chesil - "a strong one, a hero, or giant"
- Hindu: Praja-pati - "the Stag"
- Egyptian in the Denderah Zodiac: Ha-ga-t - "this is he who triumphs"
- Ancient Akkadian: Ur-ana - "the light of heaven"
- Beltelguse (in his right shoulder), pronounced "Beetlejuice" means
"The Coming Branch " (Isaiah 11:1, Jeremiah
23:5, Malachi 3:2). Betelgeuse is a red giant that is one of the largest of stars in the sky. If Betelgeuse were our Sun, its surface would reach beyond the orbit of Mars!
- Rigel (in his raised foot) means "The
foot that crushes" (Psalm 91:13-15, Romans 16:20). The
foot is lifted up, and placed immediately over the head of the enemy,
as though in the very act of crushing it. Thus, the name of the star
bespeaks the act.
- Al Nitak (one of the three in the belt)
means "the wounded One".
- Mintaka (also in the belt) means "dividing,
as a sacrifice" (Leviticus 8:2).
- This belt was identified as "the three kings" and also as "Jacob's Rod".
- Bellatrix (in his left shoulder) means "Swiftly
Coming", "Suddenly Destroying"
- Saiph (in his leg) means "Bruised"
(Isaiah 53:5, Genesis 3:15).
- Al Rai means "who bruises,
- Thabit (Hebrew) means "treading
- Algebor (The Mighty).
- Alnagjed (The Prince).
- Almirzam (The Ruler).
- Heka (Coming).
Verses (Orion means "Coming Forth as a Light"):
- Isaiah 9:2: The people who walk in darkness will see a great light. For those who live in a land of deep darkness, a light will shine.
- Job 9:9: He made all the stars—the Bear
and Orion, the Pleiades and the constellations of the
- Job 38:31: “Can you direct the movement
of the stars— binding the cluster of the Pleiades or loosening
the cords of Orion?
- Amos 5:8: It is the Lord who created the stars,
the Pleiades and Orion. He turns darkness into morning
and day into night. He draws up water from the oceans and pours it down
as rain on the land. The Lord is his name!
- Isaiah 9:2: The people who walk in darkness will
see a great light. For those who live in a land of
deep darkness, a light will shine.
- Isaiah 42:13-14: The Lord will march forth like a mighty hero; he will come out like a warrior, full of fury. He will shout his battle cry and crush all his enemies. He will say, “I have long been silent; yes, I have restrained myself. But now, like a woman in labor, I will cry and groan and pant.
- Isaiah 60:1-2: “Arise, Jerusalem! Let
your light shine for all to see. For the glory of the Lord rises
to shine on you. Darkness as black as night covers all the
nations of the earth, but the glory of the Lord rises and appears
- John 1:4-5: The Word gave life to everything
that was created, and his life brought light to everyone. The light
shines in the darkness, and the darkness can never extinguish it.
- John 8:12: Jesus spoke to the people once more
and said, “I am the light of the world. If you
follow me, you won’t have to walk in darkness, because you will
have the light that leads to life.”
Greek Mythology: Orion was the son of Poseidon, the god of the seas. Orion boasted that so great was his might and skill as a hunter that he could kill all the animals on the face of the Earth. Gaea, Goddess of Earth, was alarmed at such a boastful and inappropriate statement. Gaea decided that Orion must be killed just in case he might one day decide to carry out his boast. So Gaea sent a giant scorpion to Orion and ordered the beast to sting Orion. As mighty as Orion was, after only a brief battle, the scorpion managed to deliver the hunter a deadly sting. Scorpius stung Orion on the heel (at the star Rigel). Orion and the scorpion were given honored places in the sky, but they were placed at opposite ends of the sky so that they would never engage in battle again. Although there are other stories about how Orion met his death, this one is the most common. He was the Sun-god of both the Egyptians and Phoenicians.
II. Eridanus - (The River of the Judge) -
The river of wrath breaking forth for His enemies
The next decan is Eridanus, "The River of the Judge".
A river of fire, flowing from the crushing foot of Orion toward Cetus
(a decan of Aries), through the northern hemisphere ending at the star
Achernar (The After Part of the River) in the southern hemisphere. Daniel
sees this "River of the Judge" coming from before the Ancient
of Days. There are many references in the Bible of a fiery river that
the wicked are cast into. Here then is that river of Judgment, issuing
from before Christ in Orion. It is a river which begins at the knee of
the Hunter and proceeds down and was supposed to encircle the southern
ecliptic pole, much as the Dragon is coiled about the north ecliptic pole.
Issuing from the foot of Orion, is a river of Judgment. This is an immense
constellation. Star names include the after part of the river, flowing,
and bent down. It has always been associated with fire. The ancient astronomer Hipparchos (ca. 150 B.C.) called Eridanus the "River of Orion."
- Daniel 7:10: and a river of fire was pouring out, flowing from his presence. Millions of angels ministered to him; many millions stood to attend him. Then the court began its session, and the books were opened.)
- Achernar (a - The brightest star at the mouth of the river): the after part of the river
- Cursa (b at the source of the river): bent down.
- Zourac (Arabic) (g at the second bend in the river): flowing
- Pheat (in the Denderah Zodiac): mouth (of the river)
- Ozha: the going forth
- Psalm 50:3: Our God approaches, and he is not silent. Fire devours everything in his way, and a great storm rages around him.
- Psalm 97:3-5: Fire spreads ahead of him and burns up all his foes. His lightning flashes out across the world. The earth sees and trembles. The mountains melt like wax before the Lord, before the Lord of all the earth.
- Daniel 7:10: and a river of fire was pouring out, flowing from his presence. Millions of angels ministered to him; many millions stood to attend him. Then the court began its session, and the books were opened.
Greek Mythology: The story goes that Phaethon, son of Apollo the Sun God, pestered his father to allow him to drive the celestial chariot across the skies one day. The sun was seen as carried daily on a chariot driven by Apollo. Phaethon was encouraged by his sisters and even his own mother. But Apollo always refused, knowing that his son was far from ready to assume that awesome responsibility. However, one day Phaethon climbed into the chariot, which was drawn by two white horses, grasped the reins and set off across the skies. It was soon apparent that Phaethon was incapable of controlling the horses, as they galloped so high in the sky that the earth was close to freezing, then they plunged so close to the earth that the fields were burnt.
Zeus soon had enough of this nonsense and sent a thunderbolt, killing the young man. His burning body fell to Earth and landed in the River Eridanus. His sisters, for having encouraged him in this foolhardy adventure, were changed into poplar trees which stood along its banks.
III. Auriga - the Charioteer (The Shepherd) -
Safety for the redeemed in the day of wrath
The last decan is Auriga (pronounced oh-RYE-guh), "The Shepherd",
"The Charioteer". He is depicted as man holding chariot reins
in one hand and a mother goat with a pair of kids - safe and protected
in the arms of the shepherd.
In Latin, the word Auriga means a coachman or charioteer, the band in his right hand being taken as his reins. But the incongruity of a charioteer carrying a she-goat, and nursing two little kids, never struck them; nor did the fact that he has no chariot and no horses! When man blunders in the things of God, he does it thoroughly!
Auriga looks like a pentagon, if one includes Alnath, which is also the tip of one of Taurus the Bull’s horns.
- Auriga is from a Hebrew root which means a shepherd.
- In Latin, the word Auriga means a coachman or charioteer, the band in his right hand being taken as his reins. But the incongruity of a charioteer carrying a she-goat, and nursing two little kids, never struck them; nor did the fact that he has no chariot and no horses! When man blunders in the things of God, he does it thoroughly!
- In the Denderah Zodiac Auriga is called Trun, which means "scepter" or "power". Ironically, the scepter's top has the head of a goat! And at the bottom,
below the hand that holds it, it ends in a cross! With the Egyptians the
cross was a sign of life.
- The brightest star, a (in the body of the goat), points her out as the prominent feature of the constellation - its name in Hebrew, Alioth, means a she goat.
It is known by the modern Latin name Capella, which has the same meaning.
- The next star, b (in the shepherd's right arm), is called Menkilinon in Chaldaic, and means the band, or chain of the goats, and points out the truth that they are never more to be lost again, but to be bound, with the bands of love, to the Shepherd for evermore.
- The name of another star is Maaz, which means a flock of goats.
- The star marking the kids is called Gedi in Hebrew means kids.
- Elnath in the right foot means Wounded or Slain.
- Isaiah 40:10-11: Yes, the Sovereign Lord is coming in power. He will rule with a powerful arm. See, he brings his reward with him as he comes. He will feed his flock like a shepherd. He will carry the lambs in his arms, holding them close to his heart. He will gently lead the mother sheep with their young.
This is exactly what is presented before us in this last section of the chapter, which tells of the coming judgment. We have had the picture of a mighty Bull rushing forth; then the fiery river of the Judge; and now we see a Great Shepherd. He is seated upon "the milky way," holding up on his left shoulder a she goat. She clings to his neck, and is looking down affrighted at the terrible on-rushing Bull. In his left hand he supports two little kids, apparently just born, and bleating, and trembling with fear.
The connected teaching of the two constellations, Eridanus and Auriga, is solemnly set forth in Malachi 4:1-3:
The Lord of Heaven’s Armies says, “The day of judgment is coming, burning like a furnace. On that day the arrogant and the wicked will be burned up like straw. They will be consumed—roots, branches, and all. “But for you who fear my name, the Sun of Righteousness will rise with healing in his wings. And you will go free, leaping with joy like calves let out to pasture. On the day when I act, you will tread upon the wicked as if they were dust under your feet,” says the Lord of Heaven’s Armies.
In Psalm 37, this day is repeatedly referred to, the day when "the wicked shall be cut off"; and it concludes by summarizing the same great truth:
- Psalm 37:38-40: But the rebellious will be destroyed; they have no future. The Lord rescues the godly; he is their fortress in times of trouble. The Lord helps them, rescuing them from the wicked. He saves them, and they find shelter in him.
Greek Mythology: Auriga was the son of Helios (the sun god) and Hera (Zeus' wife). According to one Greek myth, Hera had a child who was born lame. Disgusted, she threw him out of Heaven to Earth, where he became the famous lame smith, Hephaestus, who fashioned beautiful ornaments and armor for the gods. He is also the smith who came to Orion's rescue after Orion had been blinded. It is said that because he was lame he invented the chariot so that he might get around better.
So in the sign of Taurus we have the swift Return of the Prince during the Day of the Lord who had been wounded. We also find the mighty hero of light coming forth in judgment (Orion), the fiery river of judgment which he pours forth (Eridanus), and the Good Shepherd tending his flock ("Auriga"): judgment, punishment and reward.
Look Taurus and its three decans together and compare it to the following scripture in Habakkuk 3:3-6: I see God moving across the deserts from Edom, the Holy One coming from Mount Paran. His brilliant splendor fills the heavens, and the earth is filled with his praise. His coming is as brilliant as the sunrise. Rays of light flash from his hands, where his awesome power is hidden. Pestilence marches before him; plague follows close behind. When he stops, the earth shakes. When he looks, the nations tremble. He shatters the everlasting mountains and levels the eternal hills. He is the Eternal One!.
The next zodiac is Gemini, The twins.
Here is the story the Mazzaroth has presented to us so far:
Here is the story the Mazzaroth presents to us, with the ones that we've covered thus far in bold:
- The seed of the woman shall come.
- There shall be a price paid by Him for a purchased possession.
- The price shall be a conflict with the serpent-foe, and a wound in the conqueror's heel.
- He shall be sent forth swiftly, surely, as an arrow from a bow.
- He shall be slain as a sacrifice.
- He shall rise again and pour out blessings on His people.
- His people shall be multitudes, and held in union with each other and Himself
- He who was slain, whose heel was bruised, shall rule, and shall tread His enemy under foot.
- He shall come in power, triumphant, and have dominion.
- He shall be the Son of God and the son of man, the victim and the ruler.
- He shall hold fast His purchased possession, the reward of His work.
- He shall finally put all enemies under His feet, coming with ten thousand of His saints to execute judgment upon all, separating the evil from the good
Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from the New Living Translation of the Bible.
- A Message in the Heavens by Joseph Herrin: http://parablesblog.blogspot.com/2008/12/message-in-heavens.html
- Berkley Lawrence Hall of Science - Starwheels:
Uncle Al's Sky Wheels: http://lhs.berkeley.edu/starclock/skywheel.html
- Biblical Astronomy: www.biblicalastronomy.com/
- Biblical Astronomy: The Hebrew Mazzaroth: www.watchmanbiblestudy.com/biblestudies/BibleStudy_BiblicalAstronomy.htm
- Bootes - He Is Coming!: www.heart4god.ws/id655.htm
- Centaurus: The Witness of The Heavens Part 4 (video):
- Constellation Mythology: www.coldwater.k12.mi.us/lms/planetarium/myth/index.html
- Constellation Names by John P. Pratt: www.johnpratt.com/items/astronomy/starnames/cons_names.html
- Crosswalk: bible.crosswalk.com
- Day Four - Sun, Moon & Stars: http://ajchesswasbibleblog.blogspot.com/2005/08/day-four-sun-moon-stars.html
- Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ by John
- God's Message in the Stars: www.prepare-ye-the-way.com/zodiac1.htm
- God's Message in the Stars: www.returntogod.com/Science/stars.htm
- God's Word in the Stars: www.eternalthroneofdavid.com/morfessa/stars14.htm
- Gospel and Astrology?: www.bikerjohn.com/gospel_astrology.htm
- Hands-on Universe Star Chart: www.handsonuniverse.org/activities/uncleal/NorthStarwheel.pdf
- "He calleth them all by their names"
(Video on youtube): www.encyclopedia.com/YouTubeDisplay.aspx?videoid=4DU9JcE1qWg&term=Mazzaroth
- Historic Christianity: Pisces & Aries:
- Ian Ridpath's Star Tales: www.ianridpath.com/startales/contents.htm
- Logos in the Night: www.thebelotefamily.info/starrynight/Logos2.htm
- Mazzaroth or the Constellations by Frances Rolleston:
- Meaning of Zodiac Signs - video by Randall Niles:
- Message From The Stars - The Mazzaroth: www.genesisfiles.com/Mazzaroth.htm
- Net Bible: www.bible.org/netbible/index.htm
- Review of Gospel in the Stars by John
P. Pratt: www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/gis/gis_review.html
- Signs in the Heavens - MP3 Download by Chuck Missler:
- Signs in the Stars? by Lambert Dolphin Malcolm
Bowden, Barry Setterfield and Helen Fryman: http://ldolphin.org/zodiac/
- Stars Video: http://beyondtheshadow.org//?Stars%20video
- Stellarium: www.stellarium.org
(a downloadable computer program which shows the heavens at any time
- Summary of the meanings of the Constellations:
- The Evening Sky Map: www.skymaps.com/downloads.html
- The Gospel before the Bible: http://kenrockwell.blogspot.com/2007/11/gospel-before-bible.html
- The Gospel in the Stars by Frederick C. Kubicek:
- The Gospel in the Stars by by John Ensworth: www.crossbowministries.com/Newsletter1.htm
- The Heavens Declare the Glory of God by P. Johnson:
- The Meaning of the Zodiac: www.bibletruthonline.com/themeaningofthezodiac.htm
- The Message in the Mazzaroth by Evan Wiggs: www.evanwiggs.com/articles/mazz.html
- The Salvation Message Written in the Stars: www.yarahministries.org/heaven.html
- The Star Gospel: www.biblenews1.com/creation/stars.html
- The Star of Bethlehem: www.tccsa.tc/articles/gospel_stars_rso.html
- The Stars Also (Appendix 12 From The Companion
- The Testimony of the Stars by Chuck Missler (audio
- The Witness of the Stars by E. W. Bullinger: http://philologos.org/__eb-tws/default.htm
- The Witness of the Stars (introduction) by E.W.
- The Zodiac Testifies of Christ by John P. Pratt:
- What Does The Bible Say About Stars?: www.horizonenergycorp.com/hpo/constellations/bible.htm
- Written in the Stars: www.thegodshonesttruth.org/Writteninthestars.htm
- Your Sky Tonight - PBS: www.pbs.org/seeinginthedark/explore-the-sky/your-sky-tonight.html
- "Created Cosmos" - A Creation Museum Planetarium Show by Answers in Genesis
- "The Companion Bible" (1893) by E. W. Bullinger - Zondervan Publishing House
- "The Gospel in the Stars" (1882) by Joseph A. Seiss
- "The Heavens Declare" (1985) by William Banks - Impact Christian Books, Inc.
- "The Witness of the Stars" (1893) by E. W. Bullinger - Zondervan Publishing House
Defender's Study Bible" -World Bible Publishers
Bible Dictionary" - Merrill F. Unger - Thomas Nelson Publishers
Complete Expository Dictionary" - W. E. Vine - Thomas Nelson Publishers